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Zero, first and second condition | English PPT | web4study
Zero, first and second condition | English PPT
Zero, first and second condition:
1) How to express conditions in social situations
2) An unreal condition in the present/ future.
3) Language to agree/disagree and exchange opinions,
4) Argumentative discourse
Zero conditionals are also called real conditionals. They express something that is certain or real, a result that always happens to provide the condition in the if-clause is met. These results may be general facts, universal truths, or personal results in a given situation.
General fact: if water reaches 212 degrees Fahrenheit, it boils.
Universal truth: if you cut a man, he bleeds.
Personal truth: If people eat too much, they get fat.
To form a zero conditional, the verb in the if-clause should appear in the present tense. The verb in the result clause should also appear in the present tense.
Habitual condition with if:
If +present + present
If I am away, I call every day.
If employees arrive late, __________________________________
If costs go up, __________________________________________
If profits go up, _________________________________________
If babies are hungry, ____________________________________
First conditionals are results that are likely to occur; they will probably happen though the outcome is not certain. With first conditionals, there is a possibility that they will not turn out, as one would expect, but that possibility is slight. When forming first conditionals in English, the if-clause appears in the present tense, and the result clause appears in the simple future.
If she studies, she will get good grades.
First conditionals are not always simple, however. In more complex sentences, you can use other models in the result clause depending on the outcome’s level of certainty.
If she studies, she might get good grades.
If she studies, she could get good grades.
The if-clause, as well, is not limited to the present tense in first conditionals. The verb can also appear in the present progressive, present perfect, and simple future.
If she is still studying (right now), she will not get any sleep.
If she has gone (now), I will tell you.
If she will give me the money, I will (agree to) give her the product.
Simple conditional with if
if + present + future
If I get more information, I will consider the offer.
If we agree to the contract, __________________________________
If we like their offer, ________________________________________
She’ll miss the bus if _______________________________________
I will stay home if __________________________________________
Make sentences using if.
Example: invest wisely/ make money
If you invest wisely, you will make money
1)Save more money/ be able to pay your bills
2)Make a budget/ stay out of debt
3)Pay bills on-line/ save money on stamps
4)Want to withdraw cash/ use the ATM
5)Follow a budget/ reach your financial goals
Second conditionals, also called unreal conditionals, express a situation that is not real or is not likely to happen. The if-clauses expresses the condition that would need to be met, and the result clause expresses what would happen if it were met. However, the speaker who uses a second conditional does not think that these events will occur.
Formula: if + simple past + would/could/might +main verb
If I had the money (right now), I would buy a new car.
In both sentences, the if-clause is expressed in the simple past, and the result clause is expressed with “would” plus the base verb. Other models can also be used in the result clause.