Topics Covered in this PPT
Why I Is the Same in All Parts of a Series Circuit
Total R Equals the Sum of All Series Resistances
Series IR Voltage Drops
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
Polarity of IR Voltage Drops
Total Power in a Series Circuit
Series-Aiding and Series-Opposing Voltages
Analyzing Series Circuits with Random Unknowns
Ground Connections in Electrical and Electronic Systems
Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Series Circuits
Characteristics of a Series Circuit
Fig. 4-2: There is only one current in R1, R2, and R3 in series. (a) Electron drift is the same in all parts of a series circuit. (b) Current I is the same at all points in a series circuit.
The IR drops must add to equal the applied voltage (KVL).
VT = V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 + V5
VT = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 + IR4 + IR5
VT = 0.1 × 10 + 0.1 × 15 + 0.1 × 20 + 0.1 × 30 + 0.1 × 25
VT = 1 V + 1.5 V + 2 V + 3 V + 2.5 V = 10 V
When current flows through a resistor, a voltage equal to IR is dropped across the resistor. The polarity of this IR voltage drop is:
Finding Total Power
PT = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 + P5
PT = I2R1 + I2R2 + I2R3 + I2R4 + I2R5
PT = 0.1 W + 0.15 W + 0.2 W + 0.3 W + 0.25 W = 1 W
1.If I is known for one component, use this value in all components.
2.If I is unknown, it may be calculated in one of two ways:
3.If all individual voltage drops are known, add them to determine the applied VT.
The Effect of an Open in a Series Circuit
The Effect of a Short in a Series Circuit
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