To correctly interpret the signals received from the sender, the receiver’s bit intervals must correspond exactly to the sender’s bit intervals. If the receiver clock is faster or slower, the bit intervals are not matched and the receiver might misinterpret the signals. Figure 4.3 shows a situation in which the receiver has a shorter bit duration. The sender sends 10110001, while the receiver receives 110111000011.
A self-synchronizing digital signal includes timing information in the data being transmitted. This can be achieved if there are transitions in the signal that alert the receiver to the beginning, middle, or end of the pulse. If the receiver’s clock is out of synchronization, these points can reset the clock.