Paragraph Writing | English PPT | web4study

Paragraph Writing | English PPT



Paragraph Writing

 

Paragraph Writing

Overview:

Stage 1: Prewriting

  1. Choosing and narrowing a topic
  2. Brainstorming

Stage 2:  Planning (Outlining)

  1. Outlining

Stage 3: Writing and Revising Draft

  1. Writing the first draft
  2. Revising content and organization
  3. Proofreading the second draft for grammar and mechanics
  4. Writing the final copy

 

Task#1:

In pairs, select one topic from the list given below. Narrow down the topic from general to specific.

1.Education

2.sports

3.Entertainment

4.Food

 

Brainstorming techniques:

1.Listing

2.Freewriting

3.Clustering

4.Mind mapping

 

2) Freewriting:

Write for ten minutes . . . ten minutes . . . at 9 o’clock in the morning — Just what I want to do in the morning — If you can’t think of something to say, just write about anything. Right! Time to get this over with — An experience — should have talked — I can think of plenty of times I should have kept quiet! I should have brought a bottle of water to class. I wonder what the people next to me are writing about. That reminds me. Next to me. Jeff Servin in chemistry. The time I saw him cheating. I was mad but I didn’t do anything. I studied so hard and all he did was cheat. I was so mad. Nobody else seemed to care. What’s the difference between now and then? It’s only a year and a half. . . . Honor code? Maturity? A lot of people cheated in high school. I bet I could write about this — Before and after, etc. My attitude then and now.

 

Task # 2:
Brainstorm ideas for the selected topics and jot down as quickly as they come to you by using ANYONE technique.

Example:
TOPIC :
METROPOLITAN CITY’S PROBLEMS

  • Buses and streets
  • Late bus arrivals
  • Housing is expensive
  • High property value
  • Expensive apartments
  • Traffic jams
  • Heavy downtown traffic
  • Arrive in bunches
  • Missed appointments
  • accidents

 

Planning: (Outlining)

In the planning stage, you organize the ideas you generated by brainstorming. The most efficient way to do this is to make an outline.

´Daily schedules are unreliable. (main idea 1)

      -late arrivals                                   sub idea

      -arrive in bunches                         sub idea

´Passengers are victims.              (main idea 2)

       -missed appointments                 sub idea

       -extra waiting time                       sub idea

Then, develop a topic sentence to cover these points.

One problem is the city’ unreliable public transportation.

Or

One of the city’s biggest problems is the unreliability of its public transportation system.

 

Simple outline:

Topic sentence: One of the city’s biggest problems is the unreliability of its public transportation system.

1)   Daily schedules are unreliable.

      -late arrivals

       -arrive in bunches

2)    Passengers are victims.

       -are late for appointments, work, classes

       -must allow extra time to wait for buses

 

On a separate piece of paper, make an outline of the following paragraph:

Bad Drivers

There are three kinds of bad drivers you see on the streets and highways of almost any country. The first kind of bad driver is the wannabe Grand Prix racer. This kind of driver drives very aggressively. For example, he or she steps on the gas and roars away a millisecond before a traffic signal turns green. Driving in the passing lane and ignoring speed limits are normal for this kind of driver. The second kind of bad driver is the modern multi-tasker. Modern multitaskers include drivers such as working mothers and overworked businessmen and women. They eat a sandwich, drink a cup of coffee, talk on their cell phone, and discipline the children fighting in the back seat while speeding down the highway at 65 mph. The last kind is the cautious driver. The cautious driver drives very slowly and carefully. For instance, he or she drives no faster than 40 mph on highways and slows down to 30 on every curve. When making a turn, he or she almost comes to a full stop before inching around the corner. In conclusion, bad drivers can be speedsters, “slow steps,” or just inattentive, but you have to watch out for all of them!

 

The three parts of a paragraph:

A paragraph has three major structural parts: a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and concluding sentences.

The topic sentence states the main idea of the paragraph and it limits the topic to one or two main areas that can be discussed completely in a single paragraph.

A topic sentences is a complete sentence, it contains a subject, a verb, and (usually) a complement.

Topic sentences contain both a topic and a controlling idea.

For example:

Driving on freeways requires skill and alertness.

Gold, a precious metal is prized for two important characteristics.

One problem is the city’s unreliable public transportation.

Supporting details– develop topic sentences. They explain the topic sentence by giving reasons, examples, facts, statistics, and quotations

A good concluding sentence:

Signals the end of the paragraph.

Summarizes the important points briefly or restates the topic sentences in different words.

(end of the paragraph signals)

Finally, in conclusion, in summary, therefore, thus, as a result, indeed, in brief, in short,

We can see that…

It is clear that…

These examples show that…

There can be no doubt that…


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