Important industries of Pakistan | Note
The following are the important Industries of Pakistan:
(1) SUGAR INDUSTRIES:
It is one of the biggest industries in the country. Pakistan started -with two sugar factories at Rahwali near Gujranwala (Punjab) and Takht Bhai (N.W.F.P) in 1947. Sugar is made out of sugarcane, which is cultivated in large quantity in the three provinces namely, Punjab, Sindh, and N.W.F.P. Therefore, the government decided to set up sugar factories in the areas where sugarcane is cultivated.
There are 78 Sugar mills in the country (40 in Punjab, 32 in Sindh, 6 in N.W.F.P) with the capacity to produce 5 millions tonnes of refined sugar. Pakistan is not only self-sufficient in the production of sugar but also earns valuable foreign exchange through export of sugar. Pakistan’s sugar is of the best quality.
(2) CEMENT INDUSTRY:
Limestone and Gypsum are used in the manufacturing of cement. Fortunately, Pakistan has large deposits of both .limestone and gypsum. Therefore, a number of big cement factories have been established in public and private control of Pakistan State Cement Corporation (PSCC). Cement factories have been established in the following cities of Pakistan.
Punjab: Dandot, ·Wah, Daud Khel, Rawalpindi and D.G. Khan.
Sindh: Karachi, Hyderabad, Thatta, Nooriabad, and Rohri.
N.W.F.P: Kohat, Haripur, and Nowshera.
Balochistan: Darwaza and Gadani.
Pakistan is almost self-sufficient in the production of cement. At present, there are 25 cement factories in Pakistan as compared to only one at the time of independence in 1947. The installed capacity is 17.7 million tonnes. There are 21 cement factories in the private sector and 4 in public Sector.
(3) VEGETABLE GHEE & COOKING OIL INDUSTRY:
This industry, in the beginning, was established in the private sector but it was nationalized in 1973 out of 26 factories, 23 factories were nationalized and put under. the control of Ghee Corporation of Pakistan (GCP). The raw material for vegetable ghee industry is imported because the local raw material is not sufficient.
These are located in Karachi, Hyderabad. Sukkur, Nawabshah in Sindh, Rahim · yar khan, Bhawalpur, · Lahore, Multan, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi in Punjab. Nowshehra, Haripur, and Dargai in N.W.F.P, and in Dera Murad Jamali. and Quetta in Balochistan. There are a few factories in the capital of Pakistan, Islamabad. The industry is now entirely in the private sector after privatization: It comprises 160 units in orga·nized and unorganized sectors. The installed capacity is 2.7. Million tones.
(4) CHEMiCAL FERTILIZER INDUSTRY:
This industry is meeting the needs of chemical fertilizer necessary for agricultural production. Different kinds of fertilizers are produced by the fertilizer.Industries established at different places. Pakistan is producing surplus chemical fertilizer which is exported to other countries. There are 10 fertilizer units in the country (five in Punjab, three in Sindh and two in (N.W.F.P). The total installed capacity is 5.6 million tones.
(5) IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY:
The development of iron and steel industry is a symbol of the industrial and economic development of a country. It cannot be ignored in modern times.
In Pakistan Iron and Steel industries are:
(i) Pakistan Still Mill at Pipri near Karachi
(ii) Heavy mechanical complex at Taxila.
(iii) Small Iron and Steel industries at PECO and Nokudi in Balochistan.
Iron depends are found in many places in Punjab at Kala Bagh, Makarwal and in NWFP at Langeryal, Hazara and in Baluchistan at Nokundi, Ziarat, Ghil Ghazi, and Khuzdar.
The ores have a low percentage of iron and it is not enough to meet our national requirements. It is not economical to mine the iron from these places of commercial basis. Hence iron ore is imported from the other countries.
Pakistan Steel Mills (Pipri) Karachi:
This mill is the largest in Pakistan and was established at Pipri 40 miles from Karachi. It was established with the cooperation of Russia in 1973.
The raw material such as iron and coal for this mill is imported fro_the other countries. It has Blast Furnace and other heavy machinery. It is now producing.Pig iron, iron sheet, coal tar, hot rolled coil, cold, rolled coil galvanized sheets and other products. Thousands of people have been employed in this mill and lot of foreign exchange has also been saved.
Heavy Mechanical Complex Taxila:
In 1968 a heavy mechanical complex was established in Taxila with Chinese assistance. It started giving results in 1970. It has the annual capacity of melting. 80,00 tons of pig iron. This complex is manufacturing various items for different organizations.
In this complex different types of machinery and equipment are made such as plants for sugar cement and fertilizer industries. Besides these other items such as grains machinery for flour mills leather spinning and weaving machines and their spare parts are also being produced.
(6) COTTON INDUSTRY:
The cotton industry is the largest and extensive industry of Pakistan. 480 to 850 cotton handlooms are working in Pakistan. All four provinces have the mills of cotton textile. During 1980 to 1990 cotton industry in Pakistan was flourishing wall but 1990-1999 the production of cotton textile was badly affected because of various of floods in Pakistan. During 1990. Many small units of cotton industry were closed.
There were only three cotton mills were presented at the establishment of Pakistan. Cotton was cultivated on large scale in Sindh and Punjab before partition. After the establishment Pakistan
Industrial Corporation in 1952, many new industrial units were established during this period. During 1987-1988, Pakistan got prominent status in exporting cotton yarn to other countries During 1998 Pakistan earned 54 billion rupees from the external trade of cotton clothes 40 to 50 percent of the total industrial laborers of Pakistan are associated with the cotton industry. Cotton textiles mills have been established in four provinces of Pakistan.
(7) LEATHER INDUSTRY:
Leather industry in Pakistan is growing day by day. In Pakistan, cattle rearing is common along with agriculture. The skins of animals are used in the manufacturing of leather. Leather tanneries are situated in every big town of Punjab. In Pakistan, more than 300 leather tanneries are working at various parts. First skins and leather are exported to other countries. Leather tanneries first produced common leather which is generally used in manufacturing shoe.
After adopting chrome prosing method, many other leather products were started to manufacture in Pakistan. Various kinds of leather are obtained through this method the big centers of leather tanning are working in Karachi and Lahore. Jn Sialkot, Multan, Rawalpindi and Hyderabad leather tanneries are also working. Now leather tanneries have also been established in the cities of Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa and Balochistan.
After tanning leather, various items such as the suitcase, table lamps . and flower pots are manufactured. Ladies handbags and various other products are also manufactured from leather 90 percent of total production of leather products are exported to other countries.