Salt is an ionic compound produced when an acid is neutralized by a base. For example, sodium hydroxide neutralizes hydrochloric acid to form sodium chloride (salt) and water.
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) –> NaCl(aq) + H20(1)
Similarly potassium hydroxide neutralizes nitric acid to form potassium nitrate and water.
KOH(aq) + HCl(aq) –> KN03(aq) + H2O(1)
On the basis of their chemical nature, salts can be divided into three groups.
(1) Normal Salts (2) Acidic Salts (3) Basic Salts
Salts which are formed by the complete neutralization of an acid by a base e.g. NaCl, NaN03, K2S04 etc are normal salts. These salts do not have replaceable hydrogen atoms or hydroxyl groups.
Salts which are formed by the partial neutralization of an acid by a base e.g. NaHS04, KHC03, etc are acidic salts.
NaOH(aq) + H2S04(aq) –> NaHS04(aq) + H20(1)
KOH(aq) + H2C03(aq) –> KHC03(aq) + H20(1)
These salts contain replaceable hydrogen ion. They react further with bases to form normal salts.
Salts, which are formed by the partial neutralization of a base by acid, e.g. Mg (OH) Cl, Zn(OH)CI, etc are basic salts.
Mg(OH)i + HCl(aq) –> Mg(OH)CI + H20(1)
These salts have replaceable hydroxyl groups. They can further react with acids to form normal salts.
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