The central processing (CPU) is the brain or the nerve center of the computer system. The processing or calculating function takes place in the central processing unit. It is here that raw data is transformed into meaningful information. The CPU is the most important element of a computer system.In the personal computer, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor.
There are two typical components of a CPU
1. Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)
2. Control unit (CU)
Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU):
This is where arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication are performed. This is where logical operations are also done such as comparison. between two pieces of data. The ALU performs the basic functions on data received from the primary storage based on the instruction from the control unit.
Control unit (CU):
All the computer’s resources are managed by the control unit (CU). It works like a traffic cop directing the flow of data between the components of the CPU and from the other devices. The CU of the CPU comprises of registers which function as temporary storage devices.
CU regulates operations in a computer by directing data flow within the CPU. It controls input and output devices and data-transfer process to and from memory.
A control unit:
• Interprets and carries out instructions of computer programs
• Selects program statements from memory
• Moves these to instruction registration registers in the control unit and
• Carries out instructions.